Arctic sea ice extent

The 2021 minimum extent (September) was  still well below the 1981-2010 average, representing the 12th lowest minimum ice extent in the 43-year satellite record. (WHO)

The Arctic Ocean is expected to become essentially ice free in summer before mid-century. The main cause for Arctic sea ice loss are the rising ocean temperatures, reinforced by the disruption of the sea ice feedback loop: the more ice gets molten, less sunlight is reflected and more energy gets absorbed by the ocean, warming up the sea water. More information in the section Essential Climate Variables

Credit: Kenneth Mankoff /

DataViz - Iframe