14.1.1(a) Index of coastal eutrophication; and (b) plastic debris density (Tier II).
Coastal areas are areas of high productivity where inputs from land, sea, air and people converge. With over 40 per cent of the human population residing in coastal areas, ecosystem degradation in these areas can have disproportionate effects on society (IGOS, 2006). One of the largest pressures on coastal environments is eutrophication, resulting primarily from land-based nutrient input from agricultural runoff and domestic wastewater discharge. Coastal eutrophication can lead to serious damage to marine ecosystems, vital sea habitats, and can cause the spread of harmful algal blooms. Across indicators 4.1.1 (a) Index of coastal eutrophication and 14.1.1 (b) Floating plastic debris density, two levels of data collection are proposed:
- Level 1: Globally available data from earth observations and modelling
- Level 2: National data which will be collected from countries (through the relevant Regional Seas Programme, where applicable (i.e. for countries that are a member of a Regional Seas Programme)
The detailed methodology is available in the publication Understanding the State of the Ocean: A Global Manual on Measuring SDG 14.1.1, SDG 14.2.1, SDG 14.5.1. This publication supports countries in their efforts to track progress against the delivery of SDG 14, by providing a step-by-step guide to implementing the indicators 14.1.1.a, 14.1.1.b and 14.2.1 under UNEP custodianship.